A section of the eleventh International Congress on Mathematical Education (Monterrey, 6-13 July 2008), the Topic Study Group 38, was dedicated to the history of teaching and learning mathematics. Topic Study Group 38 (14 presentations) was coordinated by Ángel Ruiz (Costa Rica) and by Renaud d’Enfert (France), and focussed attention on the following lines of research:Reforming Mathematics teaching: commitments and resistances; Mathematics teaching reforms and counter-reforms; Teaching practice